Climate underpins all societal benefit areas. With near real-time satellite vegetation measurements and climate data, including sea-surface temperatures and satellite-derived cloudiness indices, epidemics of Rift Valley Fever in East Africa can now be predicted months in advance. Combating climate extremes such as drought also presents considerable challenges. Because no single set of observations is sufficient, the U.S., Canada, and Mexico have established the North American Drought Monitor. Shared scientific expertise and data exchange are producing faster, more accurate drought assessments and reducing economic loss from crop failures. Having a well-connected set of interoperable monitors, indicators, and associated data increases the lead time for addressing problems and is essential to mitigation and adaptation.